What is IPTV? From the perspective of a TV observer, IPTV is very simple: instead of receiving television programming as broadcasting signals that a satellite dish or fibre optic cable, at home surrounded by a roof antenna, you get (downloaded and almost at the same time played) streamed through your Internet connection. Not the kind of connection that you have today, that deal probably can only 1-10 of Mbps (million bits per second-about the amount of information in an average novel input of your computer every second!), but a broadband lines with approximately 10 times higher bandwidth (information transmission capacity) may 10-100Mbps. Watch the program on your computer or with a set-top box (a kind of fits adapter between your Internet connection and your existing television receivers, decoding incoming signals can connect to your TV Internet programs are displayed). From the point of view of the broadcaster or the telephone company, IPTV is more complex. They need a sophisticated storage system for all the videos that you want to make available and to select a Web-like interface, the people, the programs that they want. As soon as a viewer to select a programme, you must encode the video file in a format suitable for streaming able encrypt embed ads (it so only people who have paid can decrypt and encode it received) (especially if the program free of charge) and streamed over the Internet, all from one person to a (potentially) thousands or millions of people at once. In addition, have to find out how to do a consistently high image quality supply, (especially if you are providing the advertising with your programming, because that is, what is certainly expect your payment to advertisers). Three types of IPTV IPTV is in three different flavors. The first kind, and that you are probably already called video on demand (VOD). With a service like Netflix (an online movie website), a TV program or movie that you watch from a wide range, pay your money, and watch it there and then want to. A different kind of IPTV is from some of the world's unternehmungs TV channels will be offered. In the United Kingdom is the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) their makes last week iPlayer programmes online available using a Web-based streaming video player, named BBC. This type of service is sometimes referred to as time-shifted IPTV, because you're just normal, scheduled transfers at a time that is convenient for you. The third type of IPTV involves the transmission of live TV programs over the Internet, as they are paying attention, that's live IPTV or IP simulcasting. All three forms of the IPTV can a set-top box and a common digital TV to work either with your computer and a standard Web browser or (for much better quality). All three can either via the public Internet or through a managed, private network, the in works essentially the same way are supplied (for example from your phone and Internet service provider, to your house completely via the network of the provider). Personalized interactive TV Traditional TV broadcasting means, one-way, one-to-many delivery of information, but the combination of television and video images to the Internet the possibility opens up a much interactive experience where information in both directions. We are already on TV used talent shows where that to vote people in phone for their favourite acts, but in the future, in the TV programs can be delivered online, we far greater participation in the programmes, we expect to see. Instead of TV presenters in a conversation with a live audience of a few hundred people in a Studio, they will be, speak to a live audience of thousands or millions of viewers who can send instant feedback. We will be able to ask questions and answer the moderator be minutes later! Or maybe we will, as we want, TV Soaps to the course to come, filmed in advance with multiple endings and different, different shielded vote viewers! If you have used VOD services, you might have noticed that some of them provide already interactive advertising: since only watching a video in a normal Web page in fact, you can click on an ad, to a site go and find value. Online behavioural advertising to highly targeted given the trend, use the much better on people to advertising, advertisers IPTV, deliver them to observe. This is to prove, as the catch more effective and more attractive for them - all, generic ads them to screen today on the current broadcast TV channels, not least, because may people, whole broadcasts for later viewing and fast forward in the display (something you can't do with IPTV). It is very likely that you want to choose even in the position to the ads you view ("only show me ads about fashion / sports"). How does IPTV work? Programs are located, by she turned into radio waves through the air on a roof antenna on your home to traditional TV and aired broadcast. The antenna converts the waves back into electrical signals and your TV device decodes it, to their sound and image (satellite TV works the same way, only the signal jumps in space and sends back, while cable TV signal directly to your home without radio waves). How is IPTV it different to? Store programs Live programs transmitted, how they are made, but a recorded programs and movies must in such a way that they can be selected and stored on-demand streaming. Some VOD services limit the number of programs that provide them not because they short of storage space, but because this is a possibility, the total bandwidth of your service and limit its impact on the Internet. (For example, if the BBC each program's ever is iPlayer to use free of charge on the made available provided streaming TV soap operas and sitcoms, aimed a significant portion of which would total UK Internet bandwidth may be a slowing down of the network for any other kind of net traffic.) Preparation of programmes First television (either pre-recorded or live with a video camera recorded), to a digital format that converted packages with the Internet Protocol can be delivered. Sometimes the original program will be in digital already; Sometimes it is in the form of a standard, analog TV picture (known in the SD format), which requires extra processing (analog-digital conversion) to turn it into a digital format. With current restrictions bandwidth videos need also compressed (in smaller files become), so that they smoothly without buffering stream (periodic delays caused, like the recipient builds inbound packets). Means in practice this programs are encoded either in MPEG2 or MPEG4 format (MPEG4 is a newer form of video compression, which gives a higher quality for a similar bandwidth and requires only half as much bandwidth for an SD picture as MPEG2). If this is done, ads must be placed, and to encrypt the information. Streaming programs When you browse a Web site, you are effectively a temporary connection between two computers, so you can "Suck information from another". Usually very much more powerful computer (server) by linking directly to an IP address who want the site pulls information from the other computer (the client), that is to look at. The client and server have a short, intermittent conversation, in which the client from the server to the page you looking for all the files that it needs to build. Servers are usually so quick and powerful that many customers can download this way at the same time, with very little delay. This kind of ordinary download between a client-server and a server is known as IP unicast (the most Web browsing falls into this category). IP multicasting When it comes to streaming (programs play, how to download it) but built the customer has a much larger (and concurrent) load on the server, which lead to unacceptable delays and buffering the potential. With streaming, a different kind of downloading uses IP multicasting, where each packet leaves is known as the server once, but at the same time sent to many different destinations; in theory means this a server can to send information to many clients as easy as on a single customer. So if you have 1000 people watching the World Cup final at the same time over the Internet, it would sent his receiving packages of streamed video from a single server at the same time to 1000 clients with IP multicasting. If the same TV provider offers at the same time "Change the channel" to see it, effectively they switch to an episode of friends and some of the original 1000 people decide, by an IP multicast group to another and start get an other video stream. The global nature of the Internet makes it difficult to send information from your server to a local client to a client on the opposite side of the planet just as reliably. That's why IPTV providers use known often synchronized, global networks on servers, such as content delivery networks (CDNs), to create the "mirror" copies of the same data; then the people of the United States be could stream programmes from mountain view, California, while in Europe she could be those of Frankfurt am Main, to get Germany. IPTV protocols If you stream a program, you're not like a normal file to download. Instead you download a bit a file to play it, and during it the next part of the file plays, at the same time download ready to play in a moment or two. None of the files for a long time stored. Streaming works, because you your computer (the client) and the computer's receiving data from the server () both agreed to do such things. The Internet successfully combines virtually all computers in the world, because they all agree, each other in the same way with agreed technical process called talk protocols. Instead of the ordinary, standard, Web-based protcols download (technically, by the name of HTTP and FTP go), involves using protocols for simultaneous download and playback such as RTP (real time protocol) and RTSP streaming (customized real time streaming protocol). Multicast streaming includes the use of Protocol (IGMP IP group membership), the a server to transmit to the members of a group of clients can (effectively, many people watch all the same TV channel). Managed networks IPTV create available over the public Internet is quite different than providing via a private, managed network, that is, will ultimately decide what many IPTV providers to do: through control of the entire network, you can guarantee a level of quality and service. In practice, this means with a highly organized, hierarchical network with a national Office than Super head known (SHE saved in the programs and the entire service is co-ordinated) feeding in regional centers called video-hub offices (VHOS), that in turn linked to service local sales offices to boxes in the individual houses set-top. Displaying programs Anyone who's a computer and a broadband Internet connection can watch IPTV has, but to most of us want to see not watching television on a raw laptop screen. That is, why the future of IPTV viewers will buy set-top boxes (also known as tr), the input received include (either through an Ethernet cable or Wi-Fi) of your Internet connection, decodes the signal, and shows an image on your high-definition widescreen TV. STBs are so programmed, that only one thing to do effectively standalone computers: receive packages of streamed videos decrypt, convert them back to video files (MPEG2, MPEG4, or what they in format were originally), and then she shows as high-quality TV images. The future of IPTV Broadcasting? There's no big whoop of ordinary TV viewers for IPTV, but that's not unusual where new inventions and innovations are concerned; No one can really appreciate something that they have not yet experienced. But the popularity of VOD websites such as BBC iPlayer and time-shifting personal video recorders (PVRs), such as E.g. hard disk (and sky + in the UK) recommend TV will increasingly away from broadly defined channels and rigid schedules, to move more closely focused, pay-per-view programming. Still consumer demand is not the driving force in the transition from the broadcast TV from the 20th century to the 21st century IPTV at least, not to start. In the last ten years or so, traditional phone companies, faced with competition from cable competitors, have no other choice, to redefine itself as the information service provider and offers Internet connectivity and telephone service had. Ever more powerful and unternehmungs among them now a more business opportunities by redefining themselves as they offer phone, Internet and TV services at the same time. Cable companies already provide all three services in attractive bundles; IPTV is possible to phone providers and broadcasters have joined forces and to compete. In the longer term, who knows whether people also have TV, telephone and the Internet to consider as separate entities, or whether they themselves on each other to and merge? IPTV sounds easier than prove it in practice. The biggest inhibitor at the moment is that too few homes have connections with sufficient capacity to handle a single high-quality TV stream, no matter multiple simultaneous streams (if there are multiple televisions in the same home) broadband. Upgrading of broadband connections, so that it routinely houses with 10-100Mbps to take time and considerable investment. As well as TV delivered or over the airwaves (known sometimes as QoS or sometimes a "Quality of experience", QoE), happens via cable, satellite until the is IPTV provider not in the position to ensure a "quality of service". Latency (delays in the Paketankunfts) and packet loss are problems enough for VoIP (voice over Internet Protocol) phones, and they are much more a problem, if in broadcast-quality video is in the current inserted. Since IPTV pressure used video formats as MPEG2 and MPEG4, packet loss has a much more serious impact than it did on uncompressed video or audio streams: the higher the compression ratio, the greater the effect each lost packet has on the image see. With a little luck can IPTV launch in exactly the same way, as did broadband Internet in the early 2000s: demanded at that time, because more and more people used the Internet, disabled, they felt by the limits of dial-up connection (and showed they were willing to pay for the telecommunications company) higher value broadband, and unless enough revenue to upgrade their networks. Once viewers begin to experience the comfort, control and interactivity of IPTV, higher bandwidth Internet connections, which make possible seems sure to follow.